Pr – Praseodymium
|Double, double, toil and trouble was the compound didymium which was discovered by chemist Carl Mosander in 1841. Fire burn and cauldron bubble was the scene in the rare-earth chemist’s laboratories for the next 44 years before the elemental twins, praseodymium and neodymium, were finally separated.|
- The primary use of praseodymium is to combine it with neodymium magnets to increase their availability to supply growing demand for high-tech applications.
- Welder and glass blower goggles made with praseodymium and neodymium oxides protect the eyes from yellow flare and UV light.
- Vibrant yellow ceramic tiles and dinnerware, popular in the Mediterranean region, are the result of combining praseodymium and zirconium oxides.
- Praseodymium oxide is a catalyst to make the most widely used plastic, polyethylene, for soda bottles, bubble wrap, food plastic wrap, sandwich bags and milk cartons.
Nd – Neodymium
|Like the twins, Castor and Pollux, from Greek mythology who possessed special powers and strong bonds, so are neodymium and praseodymium, the elemental twins, that were difficult to separate and possess a multitude of special properties.|
- Neodymium-iron-boron (Nd2Fe14B) high-strength permanent magnets are the strongest in the world.
- Wind turbine generators create electricity using neodymium-iron-boron magnets.
- Neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) are the most widely used lasers in commercial and military applications. It is used for cutting, welding, scribing, boring, ranging, and targeting.
- Electric motors in hybrid “HEV” and electric vehicles “EV” use high-strength neodymium magnets to power the car.
Dy – Dysprosium
|Despite discovery in a dystopian, dysfunctional home laboratory, the scientific community had no dysphagia that dysprosium was a new element. As the second member of the heavy-group rare-earth elements (HREE), dysprosium has two paired electrons giving it the ability to detect radiation, improve permanent magnets, store digital data, precisely aim lasers, emit sonar pings, or glow in the dark.|
- NdFeB magnets can have up to 6% of the neodymium substituted with dysprosium to raise the coercitive force for demanding applications such as drive motors for hybrid electric vehicles.
- Dysprosium in Terfenol-D, is used to produce sonar sensors, positioning actuators, active noise and vibration cancellation, seismic waves, and tool machining.
- Dysprosium phosphide (DyP) is a semiconductor used in laser diodes and high power, high-frequency applications.
- A dysprosium additive to neodymium-iron-boron magnets increases the operating temperature range for use in hybrid and electric vehicles.